The calculation unit coupled to the sensing unit generates a PTAT voltage value according to the first and second voltage values. A PTAT sensor is yet provided according to the present invention. Accordingly, the sensing unit 22 can generate 2m types of circuit configurations and sense the absolute temperature under the 2m types of circuit configurations respectively, so as to generate 2m corresponding voltage values, which are then calculated by the calculation unit 23 to generate a PTAT voltage value. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Platinum The IST AG platinum RTD temperature sensors are developed with the highest quality materials and cover a wide operating temperature range of -200 °C to +1000 °C. (V + −V d)/R 1 =V d /R 2, and ΔV EB =V T ln [(I C4 /A 4)/(I C5 /A 5)] They are usually thermistor devices. Platinum The IST AG platinum RTD temperature sensors are developed with the highest quality materials and cover a wide operating temperature range of -200 °C to +1000 °C. The resistors R5 and R6 has one end thereof coupled to emitters of the transistors Q1 and Q2 respectively, and the resistor R7 is coupled between the other ends of the resistors R5 and R6. development of integrated temperature sensors based on CMOS technology. However, a sensing error in the PTAT sensing circuit 10 may be resulted from a mismatch between its circuit components. 4B. As mentioned above, when an absolute temperature is sensed, a sensing error occurs for the reason of a mismatch between circuit components. The switch units 611, 621 and 631 are used for respectively interchanging connection relationships of input ends of the amplifiers 61, 62 and 63. where M4/M3 is a current proportion of a current mirror formed by the transistors M3 and M4. The current module, coupled to the first transistor and the second transistor, provides a first current and a second current to the emitter of the first transistor and the emitter of the second transistor respectively under the first connection configuration, and providing the second current and the first current to the emitter of the first transistor and the emitter of the second transistor respectively under the second connection configuration. Accordingly, ΔVBE is represented as: 8 is a flow chart of a PTAT sensing method in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. PATENTED CASE, Free format text: The plurality of connection configurations are generated by interchanging connection relationships between at least one pair of circuit components having a matching relationship. ΔV BE =V BE1 −V BE2=(V B1 −V E1)−(V B2 −V E2)=V B1 −V B2, The amplifier 221 has input ends 225 and 226, and an output end 227. a sensing unit, comprising a pair of circuit components having a matching relationship, generating a first voltage value by sensing an absolute temperature under a first connection configuration and generating a second voltage value by sensing the absolute temperature under a second connection configuration according to said control signal; and, generating a plurality of voltage values by switching a PTAT circuit to a plurality of connection configurations, wherein the plurality of connection configurations are formed by interchanging circuit connections of one pair of circuit components having a matching relationship; and. The cabin temperature sensor is used for detecting the average air temperature in the cabin and for allowing an accurate reading; a small fan is used to lead sample air to the sensor. I have a doubt about trimming a temperature sensor. The switch unit 222, coupled between the output 227 and the transistors Q1, Q2 and Q3, switches between a first connection configuration and a second connection configuration according to the control signal provided by the control unit 21. For example, in the amplifier 221 illustrated in FIG. The input ends 225 and 226 of the amplifier 221 are regarded as circuit components having a matching relationship, and the third and four connection configurations are generated by interchanging connection relationships of the input ends 225 and 226. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. MERGER;ASSIGNOR:MSTAR SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:050665/0001. For example, A5/A4=8*(1+ΔA4), the amplifier 11 has a voltage offset Voffset(T) between its two input ends, where the Voffset(T) changes according to the absolute temperature T, M4/M3=1.5*(1+ΔM4), R10/R8=1+ΔR8, and R11/R9=1+ΔR9. FIG. The temperature sensor is connected to Channel 15 of the ADC. As the sensor will be used for temperature monitoring in an implant where the temperature range of interest is restricted, the errors due to non-linearity are small (Figure 3). The LM34 has an output of 10 mV/°F with a typical nonlinearity of only ±0.35°F over a −50 to +300°F temperature range, and is accurate to within ±0.4°F typically at room temperature (77°F). temperature dependent resistors), in bipolar, CMOS, or BiCMOS systems, PTAT temperature sensors are almost always preferable because ∗ Corresponding author. The switch unit interchanges connection relationships of the pair of circuit components according to the control signal generated by the control unit 21, so as to generate a fifth connection configuration and a sixth connection configuration. Linearity is analyzed and a compensation strategy to improve it is developed. Calculations on a PTAT current source, derivation of formulea for instantiation. Analog Integrated Circuit Design ET4252 DC sources and references Translinear Circuits edited by: Wouter A. Referring to FIG. Under the foregoing mismatching circumstances, a sensing error in the VPTAT obtained from Formula 2 is caused to undesirably influence the accuracy of the PTAT sensing circuit 10. The PTAT temperature sensor is distributed around the ring using pairs of PN junction to avoid temperature error in presence of temperature gradients. Here in the output window, PTAT is the temperature inside the thermal sensor. Via a further experiment, it is found that the mismatch between the transistors Q4 and Q5 and between two input ends of the amplifier is a main source of the sensing error. Bases of the transistors Q1 and Q2 are coupled to the switch unit 222 and the amplifying unit 228. 7 is a circuit diagram of a current module of a sensing unit in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. All switch units inside the instrument amplifier 60 can perform switching according to the control signal generated by the control unit 21. Now, along with Analog Devices, many other vendors offer a wide array of sensors based on this principle, but with other output formats and functions in addition to the basic PTAT current. In Step 80, a circuit for sensing an absolute temperature is changed the connection to be a plurality of connection configurations such that a plurality of voltage values corresponding to the absolute temperature are generated. The temperature sensors include an ambient temperature sensor, a cabin temperature sensor, an evaporator temperature sensor, and a water temperature sensor. FIG. The sensors can operate in the harshest conditions while experiencing minimal drift. Therefore, temperature sensor designs such as this one are needed to address these engineering challenges. The resulting voltage is about 1.2–1.3 V, depending on the particular technology and circuit design, and is close to the theoretical 1.22 eV bandgap of silicon at 0 K. The deep-nwell option is required. Introduction to Hall and magnetoresistance effects. The calculation unit, coupled to the sensing unit, calculates a PTAT voltage value according to the first voltage value and the second voltage value. The sensing unit senses an absolute temperature under the first and second connection configurations to generate corresponding first and second voltage values. 15. where VT is equal to kT/q, VT is a thermal voltage, k is the Boltzmann's constant, T is an absolute temperature, q is an electric charge, IC4 and IC5 are respectively collector currents of the transistors Q4 and Q5, A4 and A5 are respectively emitter areas of the transistors Q4 and Q5, and IC4/A4 and IC5/A5 are respectively current densities of the transistors Q4 and Q5. The switch units 612, 622 and 632 are used for respectively interchanging connection relationships of the pair of internal circuit components having the matching relationship in the amplifiers 61, 62 and 63. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). A built-in algorithm eliminates errors due to series resistance between the LTC2997 and the sensor diode.The LTC2997 gives accurate results with low-cost diodeconnected NPN or PNP tra With factory trimming, remote sensor accuracy of 1 C is achieved. The measured temperature is used in a feedback loop to adjust the thermal tuner of the ring. The sensing unit 22 comprises an amplifier 221, switch units 222 and 223, transistors Q1, Q2 and Q3, a current module 224, and an amplifying unit 228, where the transistors Q1, Q2 and Q3 are BJT transistors. The PTAT sensor includes a control unit, a sensing unit and a calculation unit. 98106349 filed on Feb. 27, 2009. Formula 6 is deduced from Formula 4 and Formula 5: V out = V + * 1 + R 4 R 3 1 + R 1 R 2 - V - * R 4 R 3 . Memory In the range from − 55 ° C to 155 ° C, the worst deviation of the CTAT and PTAT temperature sensors is measured to be − 3.75 ° C to + 3.34 ° C and − 3.73 ° C to + 3.85 ° C, respectively. The S3BGNT40LP3V3 is the ultra-low power using NPN bipolar device. While the invention has been described in terms of what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention needs not to be limited to the above embodiments. More specifically, the circuit components can replace each other, i.e, A can replace B, and B can replace A. integrated temperature sense. Temperature sensors directly connected to microprocessor input, therefore it has capable of direct and reliable communication with microprocessors. VPTAT is obtained via a simple analysis: Referring to FIG. For example, in a global position system (GPS) device, an oscillator frequency of a local oscillator needs to be extremely precise to maintain the accuracy of positioning. The cabin temperature sensor is used for detecting the average air temperature in the cabin and for allowing an accurate reading; a small fan is used to lead sample air to the sensor. 1 for example. 3B. The remote channel of the SA56004X monitors a diode junction, such as a substrate PNP of a microprocessor or a diode connected transistor such as the 2N3904 (NPN) or 2N3906 (PNP). The sensor unit can communicate effectively with low-cost processors without the need of A/D converters. 3A and FIG. a bias circuit, coupled to the first switch unit, for providing the bias voltage; and. 4A and FIG. A: Although it is relatively old, it has been greatly improved and modified, but is still available for that model number. Therefore, Formula 4 and Formula 5 are respectively represented as: The voltage values are calculated by the calculation unit 23 to generate an average value to be served as a PTAT voltage value. Index Terms—bandgap, ... PTAT, over resistance R 2 and a temperature-independent reference voltage, V REF, at the bases of the bipolar pair. Therefore, the base-emitter voltage difference ΔVBE between the transistors Q1 and Q2 satisfies Formula 3: A proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) sensor is capable of reducing a sensing error resulted from a mismatch between circuit components. Temperature is the 8 pixel temperature values (as we are using 1x8 thermal sensor). 6, the switches S1 and S2 switch to P6 and P5 respectively, and the switches S3, S4, S5 and S6 switch to P8, P7, P10 and P9 respectively. They are usually thermistor devices. Other similar approaches are also applied to the sensing unit 22 under other circuit configurations to generate the corresponding voltage value. The PTAT sensor respectively senses a temperature under various connection configurations to obtain corresponding voltage values and generates a final PTAT voltage value according to the voltage values obtained. V PTA =V T ln [(I C4 /A 4)/(I C5 /A 5)]*2*(M4/M3)*(R 11 /R 9), Fortunately, in 1983 two I.C. 2) of the amplifier 221 are connected to the switch unit 222. 's, the LM34 Precision Fahrenheit Temperature Sensor and the LM35 Precision Celsius Temperature Sensor, were introduced. MSTAR SEMICONDUCTOR, INC., TAIWAN, Free format text: The control unit generates a control signal. Since the base voltage difference is very small, the sensing unit 22 transmits the base voltage difference to the amplifying unit 228 for amplification, so as to obtain a corresponding voltage value generated by sensing the absolute temperature under the first and third connection configurations. In addition, the amplifiers 61 and 62 are regarded as a pair of circuit components having a matching relationship. V REF is the result of the summation of V PTAT and the. However, the oscillator frequency varies with the temperature. The bias voltage value is determined according to a working voltage of the associated circuit. The PTAT sensor comprises a control unit for generating a control signal; a sensing unit, comprising at least a pair of circuit components having a matching relationship, for sensing an absolute temperature under the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration respectively to generate a first voltage value and a second voltage value, wherein the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration are decided by interchanging the circuit connections of the pair of circuit components according to the control signal; and a calculation unit, coupled to the sensing unit, for calculating a PTAT voltage value according to the first voltage value and the second voltage values. Semiconductor Temperature Sensors Challenge Precision RTDs and Thermistors in Building Automation 1 Introduction Temperature measurement applications in building automation and here, in particular, commercial air-conditioning use a wide variety of temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, resistance temperature 8 is a flow chart of a PTAT sensing method in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Abstract—A smart temperature sensor in 0.7 m CMOS is ac- curate to within 0.1 C(3) over the full military temperature range of 55 C to 125 C. The sensor uses substrate PNP transis- tors to measure temperature. By interchanging connection relationships of the circuit components according to the control signal generated by the control unit 21, two different circuit configurations are generated, where the control signal has at least m bits. Smart temperature sensors and temperature sensor systems 61 Fig. For example, the working voltage is an output voltage of the amplifier 221 or a working voltage of the amplifying unit 228. Intuitive design of PTAT and CTAT circuits for MOSFET based temperature sensor using Inversion Coefficient based approach Abstract: The temperature sensor traditionally implemented using parasitic BJT in CMOS process is showing limitations in deep submicron technology node … The core area of the CTAT and PTAT sensors is 0.0125 mm 2 and 0.0074 mm 2, respectively. The LTC2997 is a high-accuracy analog output temperature sensor. The temperature sensor traditionally implemented using parasitic BJT in CMOS process is showing limitations in deep submicron technology node because of process variations. For example, an average value calculated by the voltage values serves as a PTAT voltage value. The output ends 227A and 227B (comprised in the output 227 as shown in FIG. type humidity sensor interface circuit with on-chip PTAT temperature sensor is shown in Figure 1. FIG. 3A and FIG. It converts the temperature of an external sensor or its own temperature to an analog voltage output. The bias circuit can also apply serial resistors (not shown) for dividing a bias voltage to be provided to the transistors Q1 and Q2. Conventionally, BJT-based temperature sensors take advantage of the complementary-to-absolute temperature (CTAT) property of the base-emitter voltage (VBE) and the proportional-to-absolute temperature (PTAT) property of the difference between two VBE voltages in vertical PNP transistors. Consequently, the instrument amplifier 60 can generate 27 different circuit configurations. The emitters are respectively coupled to the input ends 225 and 226 of the amplifier 221. The sensing unit, coupled to the control unit, comprises an amplifier, having a first input end, a second input end, and an output end; a first transistor having a collector, a emitter, and a base, and a second transistor having a collector, a emitter and a base, wherein the collector of the first transistor is coupled to the collector of the second transistor, the base of the first transistor is coupled to a bias voltage, and the base of the second transistor is coupled to the output end; a switch unit, coupled to the first input end and the second input end of the amplifier and one of the first transistor and the second transistor, for switching between a first connection configuration and a second connection configuration according to the control signal, wherein under the first connection configuration, the emitters of the first and second transistors are respectively coupled to the first and second input ends of the amplifier, and under the second connection configuration, the emitters of the first and second transistors are respectively coupled to the second and first input ends of the amplifier; and a current module, coupled to the first transistor and the second transistor, for respectively providing a first current and a second current to the emitters of the first transistor and the second transistor; wherein the sensing unit senses an absolute temperature under the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration to generate a first voltage value and a second voltage value. It commonly has an output voltage around 1.25 V (close to the theoretical 1.22 eV (0.195 aJ) band gap of silicon at 0 K). 4B are schematic diagrams of third and fourth connection configurations respectively. The temperature sensor provides an output voltage VT that is proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT). The sensing unit coupled to the control unit comprises an amplifier, a first transistor and a second transistor, a switch unit, and a current module. Introduction to Hall and magnetoresistance effects. Figure 4.5 PTAT Current vs. temperature showing effect of diff amp offset. where IE1 and IE2 are respectively emitter currents of the transistors Q1 and Q2 (the first current and the second current). temperature sensor with overtemperature alarms. a first resistor with a first coupling end and a second coupling end, wherein said first coupling end is coupled to the first emitter; a second resistor with a third coupling end and a fourth coupling end, wherein said third coupling end is coupled to the second emitter; a third resistor with a fifth coupling end and a sixth coupling end, wherein said fifth coupling end is coupled to said second coupling end and said sixth coupling end is coupled to said fourth coupling end; and. The inverter-based temperature-to-pulse generator as a temperature sensor was used to convert the test temperature into a pulse with a width PTAT. FIG. The emitter of the transistor Q3 is coupled to the switch unit 222 and the collector and base of the transistor Q3 are connected together to the collectors of the transistors Q1 and Q2. If the ratio between the first and second resistor is chosen properly, the first order effects of the temperature dependency of the diode and the PTAT current will cancel out. PTAT current sources are widely used to generate bias currents and as temperature sensor in temperature meas- urement systems. Therefore, the GPS device also needs to accurately sense the temperature to facilitate the local oscillator to generate a proper local frequency. ..... 49 Figure 4.6 CTAT current vs. temperature showing effect of diff amp offset. PTAT Temperature Sensor for Micro-Ring Resonator Stabilization. Analog Devices analog temperature sensors provide current or voltage output proportional to the absolute temperature with accuracies of up to ±1°C. Silicon bandgap temperature sensor Last updated September 22, 2020. 2, the transistors Q1 and Q2 are designed to be a pair of circuit components having a matching relationship. The switch unit 222, coupled between the output ends 227A and 227B and the transistors Q1 and Q2, switches between the first connection configuration and the second connection configuration according to the control signal provided by the control unit 21. Notably, the temperature range of proposed CTAT and PTAT sensors is currently known to be the widest to date. 2 is a PTAT sensor 20 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. 3A. The PTAT sensing method as claimed in, PTAT sensor and temperature sensing method thereof, Application filed by MStar Semiconductor Inc Taiwan. The calculation unit 23 calculates an average value of the four digital voltage values, with the average value serving as the PTAT voltage value. In this project a monolithic PTAT temperature sensor is proposed for thermal stabilization of micro-ring resonator modulators through direct measurement of temperature. The design of this kind of circuit must rely on accu-rate device modelling, specially regarding temperature variation. As the resonance wavelength of micro-ring modulators is susceptible to temperature fluctuations, they require thermal tuning. 1. High Precision PTAT Temperature Sensor for Deep Sub-micron CMOS systems Christian Falconi, Marco Fratini, Arnaldo D’Amico Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica Università di Roma “Tor Vergata” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma, Italy falconi@eln.uniroma2.it The silicon bandgap temperature sensor is an extremely common form of temperature sensor (thermometer) used in electronic equipment.Its main advantage is that it can be included in a silicon integrated circuit at very low cost. In a second preferred embodiment, the amplifying unit 228 of the sensing unit 22 is an instrument amplifier 60. patent application No. V REF V PTAT R 1 R 2 B Q 1 Q 2 M 3 M 4 M 5 4A. Features of LM35 Temperature Sensor A: Although it is relatively old, it has been greatly improved and modified, but is still available for that model number. Therefore, in the first preferred embodiment, the sensing unit 22 generates 8 (23) types of circuit configurations according to the control signal at least having 3 bits at this point. In Step 81, a PTAT voltage value is generated according to the plurality of voltage values, and the PTAT voltage value can be an average value of the plurality of voltage values, for example. The switch units 222 and 223 are switched to generate the first, second, third and fourth connection configurations via the control signal generated by the control unit 21. The forward bias voltage of this junction is approximately 0.7 V. For example, suppose that the relationships of the foregoing 5 pairs of circuit components are: an emitter area ratio of transistors Q4 and Q5 A5/A4 is 8, the amplifier 11 has no voltage offset between its two input ends, the current ratio of the current mirror formed by the transistors M3 and M4 M4/M3 is 1.5, R10/R8 is 1.5, and R11/R9 is 1. Acknowledgements This investigation was partially supported by National Science Council, Taiwan , under Grants NSC102-2221-E-110-081-MY3 and NSC102-3113-P-110-010 . FIG. Qualitative illustration of the compromise between linearity and sensitivity of the ratio between PTAT and reference currents. FIG. With a reverse arrangement of the circuit, the connection relationships of the circuit remain unchanged. The switch unit 51 switches between the fifth and sixth connection configurations according to the control signal. V out =V +*20−V −*20=20V in. 6, an input voltage and an output voltage of the instrument amplifier 60 are respectively Vin (=V+-V_) and Vout, and the instrument amplifier 60 comprises three amplifiers 61, 62 and 63 and resistors R1, R2, R3 and R4. CMOS analog integrated circuits, temperature sensors 1 INTRODUCTION Proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) volt-age generators are needed in several modules, mainly voltage references and temperature sensors. In the sensing unit 22, a bias voltage is provided to the bases of the transistors Q1 and Q2 in order to keep an associated circuit working normally. A collector of the transistor Q1 is coupled to a collector of the transistor Q2, and emitters of the transistors Q1 and Q2 are coupled to the switch unit 223 and the current module 224. In this embodiment, the transistor Q3 is regarded as a bias circuit for providing the bias voltage. The silicon bandgap temperature sensor is an extremely common form of temperature sensor (thermometer) used in electronic equipment. The sensing unit 22 respectively senses an absolute temperature under the four circuit configurations to generate four corresponding analog voltage values to be transmitted to the calculation unit 23. The first connection configuration is that the base of the transistor Q1 is coupled to the output end 227A of the amplifier and the base of the transistor Q2 is coupled to the output end 227B of the amplifier. The closed-loop feedback system is demonstrated to operate in presence of thermal perturbations at 20Gb/s. Taking R4=20R3 and R2=20 R1 for example, Formula 6 is then: The control signal is a digital signal having two bit values such as 00, 01, and 11, which respectively represents the four circuit configurations. The sensor utilizes the difference of a current proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT) and another complementary to the absolute temperature (CTAT), generating a high-slope PTAT voltage with minimum value close to zero. The new topology generates the PTAT current from the ratio between the drain currents of two transistors in subthreshold operation. These techniques require extra optical power on the silicon-photonic chips or complex circuitry for implementation. The third connection configuration is that the emitters of the transistors Q1 and Q2 are respectively connected to the input ends 225 and 226, as illustrated in FIG. And the calculation unit, coupled to the sensing unit, calculates a PTAT voltage value according to the first voltage value and the second voltage values. The LTC2997 is a high-accuracy analog output temperature sensor. Q: IS the AD590 the only solid-state temperature sensor available? Under the second connection configuration, a current (the second current at this point) flowing through R5 and arriving at the emitter of the transistor Q1 is n times a current (the first current at this point) flowing through R7 and R6 and arriving at the emitter of the transistor Q2. Voltages between the two input ends of the amplifiers 61, 62 and 63 are regarded as being equal to each other. The device is designed in IME platform through OpSIS, which enables interconnection of distributed PTAT … 4A, operation of the sensing unit 22 is described below. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LIU, MING-CHUNG;HSIAO, SHUO-YUAN;SIGNING DATES FROM 20091030 TO 20091102;REEL/FRAME:023606/0519, PAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEE, 8TH YEAR, LARGE ENTITY (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: M1552); ENTITY STATUS OF PATENT OWNER: LARGE ENTITY, MERGER;ASSIGNOR:MSTAR SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:050665/0001, Ptat sensor and temperature sensing method thereof, Collector current driver for a bipolar junction transistor temperature transducer, Transistor matching for generation of precise current ratios, Temperature sensing apparatus and method using the same, Low voltage reference circuit and method of operation, Method and circuit for the provision of accurately scaled currents, Threshold temperature sensor comprising room temperature test means, Integrated resistance cancellation in temperature measurement systems, Calibration of thermal sensors for semiconductor dies, Circuits and methods to produce a VPTAT and/or a bandgap voltage, Proportional to absolute temperature voltage circuit, Band gap reference voltage circuit and method for generating temperature curvature corrected reference voltage, Method for synchronized delta-VBE measurement for calculating die temperature, Voltage reference circuit compensated for non-linearity in temperature characteristic of diode, Reference voltage generation circuit responsive to ambient temperature, Temperature detector circuit and oscillation frequency compensation device using the same, Three-terminal dual-diode system for fully differential remote temperature sensors, Temperature-stabilized oscillator circuit, Current-mode digital temperature sensor apparatus, Process independent curvature compensation scheme for bandgap reference, Dual source for constant current and PTAT current, Reference circuit for restraining misadjusted CMOS energy gap, Dynamic voltage reference for sampling delta based temperature sensor, Semiconductor device, temperature sensor, and electronic apparatus comprising it. 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