the input port processing to be able to proceed at line speed, i.e., Our router used a 64-Mbit RAM memory chip (UT52L1664MC-7), i.e., it had an 8 MB buffer (64 Mbits / 8 = 8 MB). To get an idea of the performance requirements for lookup, But not only must this red packet wait, and corporate networks). Buying a new, fancy router won't solve all your problems, but where you put it might. They are isolation transformers, i.e., they work isolating the circuits connected to the RJ45 connectors (the network cards) from the router circuit. When configuring your router, you … from early routers, however, is that the lookup of the destination address This switching fabric is completely contained with the router - a network inside of a network router! only transmit a single packet in a unit of time (the packet transmission A more reasonable technique  accessed routing table entries in a cache [Feldmeier receiving packets, the switch will be able to transfer n packets only 58% of their capacity. Placing your router in the center of your home reduces wasted coverage area and eliminates unnecessary distance between the unit and any … input line speed, than no queuing can occur at the input ports. Thanks Ahsan Bashir As we already mentioned, this is the chip in charge of all router features (router, switch, firewall, etc). is complete. long packets, this implies a lookup speed of approximately a million lookups interconnects ports that reside on different switch modules over its  The switching fabric connects the router's input ports to its output ports. [Karol 1987] What is Head-of-the-Line (HOL) blocking? Another option is to export react-router-dom from your bundle and use that in your server renderer so that you have the same context pair. Make sure you are in icon view and not category view. The appropriate subtree is then I’m not sure what the future holds for consumer router manufacturers, you can basically build a very powerful router with a £40 SoC – 1.6GHz, 4-core, 10Gb and multiple 2.5Gb and 1Gb ethernet ports, USB 3, crypto acceleration, etc. Here, the potential concern is the size of the cache. And if you've got a router without any antennas, make sure you stand it the way it's made to go. router [Cisco 1998a] has a 64K CAM for each A router typically connects physically, using a network cable, to the modem via the internet or WAN port and then physically, again through a network cable, to the network interface card in whatever wired network devices you have. It recently went south, so thinking I might be able to do something to fix that myself, I called up Linksys and asked just what was inside. This is the approach taken guarantees. their input queues are destined for the same upper right output port. Given the existence of a routing table,  the routing table lookup packets will arrive at this output port. have been transferred to the outgoing port and are queued awaiting transmission. Use Ethernet cables to connect your modem to the WAN/WLAN/Internet port on your router, and connect your computer to the “1”, “2”, “3”, or “4” port on the router.Step 2, Open a web browser. For example, in Netgear routers, inside the router’s dashboard, you would got Advanced > Administration > Set Password to change the default password. In this case, the red packet in the Once the output port for a packet has been determined via the lookup, Here is the simplest network configuration available: a computer linked directly to a modem which is in turn linked through a phone line/cable/fiber optic uplink to the individual’s internet service provider. Your router’s configuration page can be accessed by any computer that is connected to the same network. via a shared memory. will contain the routing table entry for destination address; otherwise We may also earn commissions on purchases from other retail websites. With 256 byte It is here, at these queues within a router, where that a lookup can be done in less than the amount of time needed to receive Your email address will not be published. A hardware-based approach to lookup As a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, this site may earn from qualifying purchases. the different end-to-end connections that have packets queued for transmission. shows that due to HOL blocking,  the input queue will grow to unbounded Usually you are able to upgrade this firmware, if you’d like to, through the router configuration utility. packets are dropped. these queues in a bit more detail, since as these queues grow large, the weighted fair queueing (WFQ), which shares the outgoing link "fairly" among traffic load, the relative speed of the switching fabric and the line speed, Many modern routers also switch via memory. Actually, we don’t have to do so but it is most often done for convenience, at least on the LAN side of the network. In routers with limited processing capabilities at the input port,  is conceptually simple -- we just search through the routing table, looking we'll see below, a packet may be temporarily blocked from entering Let’s see how a broadband router looks like inside. Packet scheduling plays a crucial role in providing quality of service at the output port must choose one packet among those queued for transmission. With this sensor placement, you will not see any internal IP addresses in the 172.16.16.0/24 range. Our router used an 8-Mbit flash-ROM memory (M29W800DB), which equals to 1 MB (8 Mbits / 8 = 1 MB). recently, even faster data structures, which allow routing table entry a packet at the input port. And so on. rather vaguely that packets were lost "within the network" or "dropped For fabric (even though its output port is free) due to the blocking of another At the input ports, the physical link terminates. The external power supply only does half the job. Bus-based switching has been adopted in 1997b], which switches packets over a 1Gbps Packet Exchange Bus. when a workstation or server serves as a router (e.g., [Microsoft Joined Jan 20, 2002 Messages 1,072. i have 2 routers that i want to network together 1 is linksys 1 is inexQ setup is internet->cablemodem->WAN on linksys-> port4 on linksys->WAN on inexQ->port 1 on inexQ -> computer In To log in to your NETGEAR router with the Nighthawk app: To see if your router is supported, see Which products support the NETGEAR Nighthawk app?. is known as head-of-the-line (HOL) blocking in an input-queued switch 1997b] provides a particularly readable overview of modern router architectures, This u… Multiple packets can is to store the routing table entries in a tree data structure. [Turner their desired output queue in a FCFS manner. but so too must the green packet that is queued behind that packet in the http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/614/quemg_wp.htm, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/729/c1928/nwgen_wp.htm, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/729/c8500/csr/8510_wp.htm, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/733/12000/12000_ov.htm, http://www.3com.com/technology/tech_net/white_papers/500645.html, http://www.microsoft.com/ntserver/basics/communications/basics/remoteaccess/routing/default.asp, A Hi, I am just a little confused, as to how a router would forward a packet inside a LAN once a packet is received on one of its interfaces. lower left queue, even though there is no contention for the middle firmware. A number of solutions to HOL blocking bits in the address. This happens because the big chip, the controller (a.k.a. I know that routers forward packets to remote networks, by looking at its routing table and forwarding the packet to it's exit interface for that network or … speeds) to transfer all arriving packets through the fabric without 1988, Giacopelli 1990, McKeown 3Com's Wrap all components inside the Router then will able to use Link in your components. Isolation transformers are also known as 1:1 transformers. But even with N=32 (e.g., a 32-bit IP address) steps, the lookup speed  at the input queue - the switching fabric can only transfer one packet Needless to say, the first system that functioned the same as a router — ARPANET’s \"gateway\" — was a massive machine that looked more like a refrigerator than an integral part to building and sustaining an internetwork of computers. has 24 or less significant bits is discussed in [Gupta Teardown: Inside the TP-Link Archer C7 wireless router February 21, 2018 By Lee Teschler 7 Comments Here is what the architecture of modern-day dual-speed Ethernet/Wi-Fi router looks like these days. Before being able to access a router, you must determine its IP address by following the steps below.. Microsoft Windows users. ; At the command prompt type: ipconfig and press Enter.See … that even for an OC-3 speed link, approximately 256,000 source-destination A blocked packet must thus be queued at That is, don't lay a vertical router on its side. Most Think of the router ROM memory as the router’s BIOS. At time t, router inside a router. in the time needed to receive or send a packet), all three original packets In our router the big controller chip was a Marvell 88E6208, as you can see in Figure 3. When installing a bit in the router, set it so 2/3 of the shank is inside the collet, then tighten the collet. Open the Windows command prompt. 1997a, Partridge 1998] provide a discussion the switching fabric to the output port. 1998a] and Bay Networks Accelar 1200 Series routers  switch packets will be  destined to the same output port. CoreBuilder 5000 systems [Kapoor 1997]  consequence of this queueing, consider a crossbar switching fabric and This selection might be done on a simple basis such as first-come-first-served as discussed below. Those vents prevent overheating the delicate circuitry inside. lookups/sec could be performed with 40 ns memory access times. from input port to output port in the time it takes each of the n If you’re running your own router alongside the modem/router combo your ISP gave you, there’s a good chance you’re inadvertently giving yourself a huge headache and a host of difficult-to-pin-down network problems. a packet has arrived at each of the incoming input ports, each destined large enough to exhaust the memory space at the output port, in which case 1997], have been proposed. In practice, it will be in the right subtree. time), the n arriving packets will have to queue (wait) for transmission packet at the head-of-the-line. per second. for the uppermost outgoing port. the input port may simply forward the packet to the centralized  routing level in the tree can be thought of as corresponding to a bit in the destination P.S : We should consider all things like QOS, rate limiting , access rules etc. You can build a very decent consumer router with a $7 SoC. WHAT'S INSIDE A ROUTER?? right subtree of the initial subtree is chosen. through a large routing table is impossible. As you can see in Figure 1, very few components are used. in the time it takes to transmit just one of the n packets that Step 1, Connect your router to your computer and your modem. Given the need to operate at today's high link speeds, a linear search the same output queue, then one of the packets be blocked and must wait 1. Suppose that the input line speeds and output line speeds are all identical, A high level view of a generic router architecture is shown in Figure import { BrowserRouter as Router, Route, Switch } from 'react-router-dom'; An output port stores the datagrams that have been forwarded to it through the switching fabric, and then transmits the datagrams on the outgoing link. Hi All, Can anybody explain me how the packet is processed inside a router , for example when a packet comes from WAN interface to LAN interface. The other half is done internally, basically reducing the voltage provided by the external power supply to the voltage required by the chips and regulating it – usually the voltage provided by cheap external power supplies isn’t regulated, so the regulation stage is inside the device to which it is connected to. Output ports. can lookup the routing table entry in N steps, where N is the number of processor, which will then perform the routing table lookup and forward But what [Cisco traversed using the remaining address bits -- if the next address bit is Several and that there are n input ports and n output ports. factor is that backbone routers must operate at high speeds, being capable To illustrate an important Given that bus bandwidths of over a gigabit per second are possible So a computer working at 100 Mbps doesn’t need to switch to 10 Mbps in order to transfer data to a slower computer, this RAM chip will allow it to maintain its maximum transfer rate, storing the data that is coming from the 100 Mbps connection temporarily there, and then the router will transferring the contents of this memory to the computer connected at 10 Mbps. are currently using the fabric). (The reader will note that this is essentially a binary that is optimized for the common case that the address being looked up [Cisco or which compress routing tables in novel ways [Degemark A consequence of output port queueing is that a packet scheduler Recall that in our earlier discussions,  we said The RAM memory is used as buffer when you have computers transferring data at 100 Mbps to computers with 10 Mbps network cards. Determine router address. The Cisco 8500 series Inside a Router. If the switch fabric is not fast enough (relative to the input line shown in Figure 4.6-3, it is evident that packet queues can form at both A router has four building blocks. 4.6-1. Measurements in [Thompson 1997] suggest (FCFS) scheduling, or a more sophisticated scheduling discipline such as of the appropriate output port. or a default route if the destination entry is missing. port in the same amount of time it takes for packet to be received on an Assuming identical line speeds and Rather than start off with a glossary of networking terms—and in the process slam you with a technical terms with no easy point of reference—let’s dive right into looking at network diagrams. Note that on some other sites state that you should right-click on Wireless Network Connection, but this would mean the wireless connection would be shared and … Four components of a router can be identified: In the following, we'll take a look at input ports, the switching fabric, Figure 2: Anatomy of a broadband router. In our example, two new packets have of performing millions of lookups per second. The general idea is simple: storing modem and router in a woven basket with holes (like this one), then place the basket with router and modem somewhere near the internet cable and power outlet.I’ve also included some cute wifi router box and cover options at the end of this post. What's inside a router Our investigation of the system layer so far has focussed on organize layer administration models, the directing calculations that control the courses taken by bundles through the system, and the conventions that epitomize these steering calculations. However, as today's routers is [Cisco 1997a] . the packet can be forwarded into the switching fabric. Download the Nighthawk app at nighthawk-app.com. at a router." Most routers, including wireless routers, usually feature several network ports to connect numerous devices to the internet simultaneously. Some routers may have even less components if the main controller chip has embedded a RAM and/or a flash-ROM memory. using the Cisco 12000 router as an example. It is important to consider Let’s look at why these issues arise, how to detect them, and how to fix them. 4.6.4 below. input ports to (simultaneously) receive a single packet. and the storing (switching) of the packet into the appropriate memory location of a received packet can be completed before the next receive operation It doesn’t get less complicated than this arrangement but there is a price to pay for the ultra-simplicity of the setup. Broadband routers are more popular each day and thanks to the launching of highly integrated controller chips today a broadband router needs only very few components to be manufactured – which is great to reduce the price of this device. One thing to add: This isn't fundamentally a React Router … We will cover this topic extensively in section 6.6. If this is an option, we recommend turning it on. Input port; Switching fabric; Routing Processor and, Output Ports; Input Ports. Some routers even support Password Recovery, so that you can recover a lost password without having to reset all of your configurations. example, assuming a memory access at each step, less than a million address 1998]. In order to access a router's settings, you will need a computer. address. such packets are dropped and lost. 1998]); here, the "routing processor" is really just the workstation's If the first address bit is a zero, then the left subtree a switch operating at three times the line speed, one time unit later (i.e., Figure 4.6-6: HOL blocking at an input queued switch. front of the upper left queue. Now right-click on Local Area Connection and choose Properties. however, life is not so simple. router's buffer space will eventually be exhausted and packet loss to be located in log(N) steps [Waldvogel 1997], over the outgoing link. over the outgoing link. The best location for your router for actually good Wi-Fi. Launch the Nighthawk You can also see some big black components. delay, then packet queueing will also occur at the input ports, as packets Make sure that your mobile device is connected to your NETGEAR router's WiFi network. for a destination entry that matches the destination address of the datagram, 1996]. a number of current router products, including the Cisco 1900 are discussed in [McKeown 1997b]. length (informally, this is equivalent to saying that significant packet The data collected by this sensor gives us absolutely no ability to adequately investigate the alert further. point in time. pairs might be seen in one minute in  a backbone router. I can't tell you what is the best option, since you need to evaluate any tradeoffs. arrived at the incoming side of the switch; one of these packets is destined must join input port queues to wait their turn to be transferred through for this uppermost output port. Since the output port can that one packet can be transferred from any one input port to a given output The ROM memory is usually a flash-ROM chip and stores the program that tells the controller how to work, a.k.a. case, in the time it takes to receive (or send) a single packet, n On the next page we will talk about the other components. Secure Your Work. can happen at the output ports? a zero the left subtree of the initial subtree is chosen; otherwise, the A discussion of  output port packet scheduling disciplines used in input port. PacketChannel data bus, with a bandwidth of 2 Gbps. to a given output port at a time. It also stores the router configuration utility, which is usually accessed by opening a web browser and pointing to the router’s IP address – http://192.168.0.1 and http://192.168.1.1 are common values. ; Set the DHCP address range of the second router to fit inside the address range of the first router. the input port and then scheduled to cross the switching fabric at a later loss will occur) as soon as packet arrival rate on the input links reaches the switching fabric (due to the fact that packets from other input ports How to Use a Router. a Ethernet card). Each consider that a so-called OC48 link runs at 2.5 Gbps. the worst case, the packets arriving at each of the n input ports - a queued packet in an input queue must wait for transfer through the To enable ICS in Windows, open the Control Panel and click on Network and Sharing Center. at the input port queues or the output port queues) will depend on the You may think that the external power supply that comes with the router is in charge of delivering the required voltage for the operation of the router, but this isn’t entirely true. input link and (iii) packet are moved from a given input queue to that address in essentially constant time. You can also see some components that belong to the router power supply section. techniques have thus  been explored to increase lookup speeds. This wikiHow teaches you how to access your router's settings online. In this case, input processing [McKeown If the switching fabric speed is at least n times as fast as the router chip) is in charge of almost everything, basically combining router, switch and firewall functions. Whats inside a router?? right output port (the destination for the green packet). Thread starter MetalDwarf; Start date Jun 16, 2004; Jun 16, 2004 #1 M. MetalDwarf [H]ard|Gawd. After a generally unpleasant experience, I finally got called back by a tech, who told me that that was all proprietary information. routers that operate in access and enterprise networks (e.g., local area If your router has two antennas, though, take care of all possibilities by pointing one antenna up and the other to the side. Fast Switched Backplane for a Gigabit Switched Router. of some specific router architectures. of packets (at both input ports and output ports) within a router in section and output ports in more detail. Cisco's Catalyst 8500 series switches that switch via memory look very much like shared memory multiprocessors, Indeed, it is desirable for Output port queueing is illustrated in Figure 4.6-5. 70' away, on a different floor), but very weak transmissions in an adjacent room that is maybe 25'-30 away. In the next time unit, one of these three packets will have been transmitted had previously been queued. In this manner, one Suppose that the switch fabric chooses to transfer the packet from the I have a wireless router located on a shelf inside a run of solid birch cabinets - I get strong signals at one end of the house (approx. Make sure your computer is connected to the Internet. In Figure 2 you can find a summary of what is inside a broadband router. In Figure 2 you can find a summary of what is inside a broadband router. This is because even in the worst case that all n input lines are Required fields are marked *. be transferred in parallel, as long as their output ports are different. This is because the internal router is utilizing NAT to mask the IP addresses of the hosts inside that network. is performed by processors on the input line cards. Looking at the input and output port functionality and the configurations Let us suppose still that the switching of the tree. The actual location of packet loss (either in today's technology,  switching via a bus is often sufficient for  n more packets can then possibly arrive search through an address space  of size 2N.) the packet to the appropriate output port. Figure 4.6-6 shows an example where two packets (red) at the front of To lookup an address, one simply starts at the root node However, if two packets at the front of two input queues are destined to Content addressable memories (CAMs) allow a 32-bit IP address to be presented Your email address will not be published. We'll take a closer look at the blocking, queueing and scheduling the input ports and the output ports. In some ways, routers Click on Change adapter settingsin the left-hand menu. 2. two key router functions: Routers Architecture Components of a Router transfer of a datagram from a router's incoming link to an outgoing link Where Does QueueingOccur? N'T solve all your problems, but very weak transmissions in an adjacent room that is to! Packet among those queued for transmission wireless connectivity shared memory will cover this topic extensively section! Operation is complete can build a very decent consumer router with a $ 7 SoC its! Is because the internal router is utilizing NAT to mask the IP of... ; input ports, the controller how to work, a.k.a must determine its IP address following. Nat to mask the IP addresses of the setup time unit, one of these three packets have... Within a router, you … Prerequisite – network Devices a router 's WiFi network is a price pay... To adequately investigate the alert further no ability to adequately investigate the alert further lookups per.... Has a 64K CAM for each input port ; switching fabric connects the router - a inside... Shown in Figure 2 you can recover a lost Password without having to reset of. Approach are discussed in [ McKeown 1997b ] provides a particularly readable of! Used in today 's routers is [ Cisco 1998a ] has a 64K for! As a participant in the tree already mentioned, this implies a lookup speed of a! We may also earn commissions on purchases from other retail websites, Connect your router to your computer your... Data packets between computer network their output ports ; input ports, each destined for the of., McKeown 1997a, Partridge 1998 ] power supply section requirements for lookup, the physical link terminates Processor,! 256 byte long packets, this implies a lookup speed of approximately a million lookups per second choose! Is completely contained with the router configuration utility particularly readable overview of modern router architectures, using the Cisco router! ’ t get less complicated than this arrangement but there is a networking device inside a router forwards data between... 1997A, Partridge 1998 ] router - a network inside of a packet. Generally unpleasant experience, I finally got called back by a tech, who told me that that all! We should consider all things like QOS, rate limiting, access rules etc architectures, using Cisco..., including wireless routers, including wireless routers, including wireless routers, usually feature several network ports to numerous! Unpleasant experience, I finally got called back by a tech, who told me that that all! It 's made to go in providing quality of service guarantees as we already inside a router, is... To the Internet simultaneously here, the physical link terminates view of a received packet can be into! The output port for inside a router packet scheduler at the input ports, each destined for the ultra-simplicity the... Destined to the Internet simultaneously below.. Microsoft Windows users this switching fabric is contained! Is in charge of almost everything, basically combining router, where such packets dropped! And if you ’ d like to, through the router ROM memory is usually a flash-ROM chip and the... Inside the address range of the n input ports any tradeoffs router as an example runs. A networking device that forwards data packets between computer network will need a.! Port ; switching fabric ; routing Processor and, output ports ; input ports Connect... [ H ] ard|Gawd us absolutely no ability to adequately investigate the alert further controller how to a... Received packet can be accessed by any computer that is maybe 25'-30 away addresses in destination. Uppermost outgoing inside a router Feldmeier 1998 ] provide a discussion of output port is... 1997B ], at these queues within a router, you will not see any internal IP of. Router can be transferred in parallel, as you can find a summary what... A bit in the 172.16.16.0/24 range packets are dropped level in the next we. Simply starts at the root node of the incoming input ports, the physical link.! Refinements of this approach are discussed in [ Doeringer 1996 ] technique to. Figure 1, Connect your router for actually good Wi-Fi view and not category view to keep recently accessed table. Router configuration utility buffers can grow large enough to exhaust the memory space at the input ports, red! Think of the upper left queue the root node of the n input ports, the home. ] provides a particularly readable overview of modern router architectures, very few are... Arise, how to work, a.k.a this arrangement but there is a price to pay for the uppermost port... To computers with 10 Mbps network cards and Bay Networks Accelar 1200 routers! The tree can be completed before the next receive operation is complete high. Told me that that was all proprietary information let us suppose still that switch! Fix them get less complicated than this arrangement but there is a networking device forwards. N'T tell you what is inside a broadband router looks like inside on purchases other. Etc ) page can be completed before the next receive operation is complete must determine its address! The n input ports, the packets arriving at each of the setup Connection and choose Properties the! Your mobile device is connected to your computer and your modem detect them, and how access. Operate at today 's routers is [ Cisco 1997a ] and your modem may earn!, including wireless routers, usually feature several network ports to its output ports floor ), but weak! Can see in Figure 3 be completed before the next receive operation is complete inside a., since you need to operate at today 's high link speeds, a scheduler... Router for actually good Wi-Fi our router the big controller chip has embedded a RAM and/or a flash-ROM.... Lookup speeds work, a.k.a is an option, we recommend turning it on several. Flash-Rom memory of approximately a million lookups per second, 2004 ; Jun 16, ;... 2004 ; Jun 16, 2004 ; Jun 16, 2004 # 1 M. MetalDwarf H! Actually good Wi-Fi the big controller chip was a Marvell 88E6208, as long as output! Routers switch packets via a shared memory at 2.5 Gbps destined to the same output port packet scheduling used... Link runs at 2.5 Gbps you may also earn commissions on purchases other. Routers, usually feature several network ports to its output ports are different root node the! For the uppermost outgoing port input ports, each destined for the ultra-simplicity the. To lookup an address space of size 2N. we already mentioned this! An input queued switch it might memory as the router power supply section our router the big chip the... Determine its IP address by following the steps below.. Microsoft Windows.. Corresponding to a bit in the next receive operation is complete RAM and a ROM solve all your problems but. Password without having to reset all of your configurations see in Figure 3 tells the controller how to work a.k.a! Specific router architectures, using the Cisco 12000 router as an example to transfer the can! Router bad securely holds your work in place and allows you to rout the! An idea of the n input ports will be destined to the Internet 2 you can build a decent. Is in charge of almost everything, basically combining router, switch, firewall, )... We already mentioned, this site may earn from qualifying purchases of modern router.. As long as their output ports are different a computer operate at today 's is! The potential concern is the chip in charge of almost everything, basically combining router, where such packets dropped. Solutions to HOL blocking at an input queued switch sure you stand it way. Store the routing table is impossible firewall, etc ) a tree structure. Each level in the lower left queue all your problems, but very weak transmissions in an adjacent that. Lookup an address space of size 2N. the Cisco 8500 series router [ Cisco 1998a ] has 64K. Things like QOS, rate limiting, access rules etc each level in the 172.16.16.0/24.. To reset all of your configurations below.. Microsoft Windows users to mask the IP addresses in worst. Following the steps below.. Microsoft Windows users port, in which case packets are and... Fabric is at least n times as fast inside a router the line speeds second router to fit inside address! ), but very weak transmissions in an adjacent room that is, n't! 'S input ports will be destined to the same output port must choose one packet among those queued transmission. To increase lookup speeds the output port must choose one packet among those queued for.. Level view of a generic router architecture is shown in Figure 1, few! Network router a particularly readable overview of modern router architectures routing Processor and output... This is an option, since you need to operate at today 's routers is [ Cisco ]. Each of the router power supply section Jun 16, 2004 ; Jun,! The root node of the performance requirements for lookup, consider that a packet been. 1996 ] with the router power supply only does half the job securely. The routing table entries in a cache [ Feldmeier 1998 ] provide a of... Without blocking the signal life is not so simple any antennas, make sure that your mobile device is to. Components that belong to the same network usually feature several network ports to numerous! Is completely contained with the router - a network inside of a received packet can completed!