Heavy metals such as chromium, vanadium and nickel in the slag could potentially leach and pollute the environment. The purpose of this paper is to review the engineering properties of steel slag and its utilization for road construction in different ways. This also fulfils many of the intentions in the EU’s strategy for resource efficiency. Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide. Most of the developed countries have successfully incorporating steel slags as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt, road base, sub-base and soil, Presently, the rate of utilization of steel slag in Malaysia is rather too low compared to some advanced countries. The paper presents the results of testing physical and mechanical properties of EAF slag coming from the regular production of unalloyed carbon steel in CMC Sisak, Croatia with the application of prior processing encompassing cooling the liquid slag by air, as well as quenching by water, grinding, magnetic separation, fragmentation and granulometric fractioning for the purpose of its application in technologies of producing asphalt mixtures. The process for crushing and grading is repeated until. Record all input waste steel slag you accept or reject for aggregate processing – you may also need this information for your permit conditions. The friction angle of steel slag is reported, repairing of pavements surface in cold weather [28], Steel slags have been successfully utilize, coarse and fine aggregate to produce mixtures with a, exceptionally high stability, which may improve the rut, large stiffness modulus values. 4, No. It occurs as a molten liquid melt and is a complex solution of silicates and oxides which solidifies upon cooling. Slags are principally divided into blast furnace slag and metallurgical slag. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of field aging simulated by laboratory aging method of different hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture. Some other, the help of a large steel ball or a solid steel cylinder by dropping it, to the slags. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. Slag, the by-product of steel and iron producing processes, has been used in civil engineering for more than 100 years. L'équipe. Moreover, a number of trial road sections with slag in unbound base course were constructed, while a comparison research carried out between layers containing steel slag as an aggregate and layers with crushed stone . The applications of steel slag powder and steel slag aggregate in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) were investigated by determining the fluidity, nonevaporable water content, and pore structure of paste and the compressive strength of concrete and by observing the morphologies of hardened paste and the concrete fracture surface. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. Successively, it is recycled as an aggregate for the construction of roads, soil stabilization, and base and for the surfacing of flexible pavement. The assessment and evaluation of this material should be based on environmental, economic and technical factors before it can be used in road construction. It is a latent hydraulic product which can be activated with anyone- lime or Portland cement. This study also found that the difference increment of resilient modulus after the aging process attributed by asphalt content, air void and gradation of respective mixtures. As an assessment of skid, problems in asphalt surfaces. The principal setback of its use; volumetric instability which results from hydratable oxides can be checkmated through appropriate methods like aging and steam test. Slag has a greater PSV (Polished Stone Value): i.e., greater resistance to wear. slag from Croatian EAF black steel slags, generated from carbon steel production process in CMC Sisak d.o.o., and steel mill in Split in order to enhance the understanding of possibilities for their use in road construction. This paper is aimed to evaluate the effects of crushed steel slag, as partial replacement of sand with specific gradation, on performance of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) with density of 1600 kg/m3 to 1700 kg/m3 in terms of compressive and tensile strengths. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to investigate the chemical composition of steel slag. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. This big specific weight leads to the advantage of those mixtures in winter-time road maintenance. advantages like high strength and durability. UTM Construction Research Centre (CRC), Uni, Steel slag, recycle, skid resistance, soil stab, 3.0 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG. Low long term expansion values of 0.32% and 0.39% were observed for WBFS and FBFS respectively. Two types of TRS profiles were selected for this study such as raised and inverted rumble strips and middle overlapped rumble strips. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag is a residue from the basic oxygen converter in steel-making operations, and is partially reused as an aggregate for road constructions. Nippon Steel & Sumi-tomo Metal ships steelmaking slag for road base course use after confirming that it meets the quality standard (volume expansion ra-tio in 80°C water ≤1.5%) by the test method according to JIS A 5015.4) 3.3 Alkalinity Because of the CaO content, water leaching from steelmaking The bitumen that is available in India is of cheap quality, not gives good strength and stability to the pavement. iron and steel slag for road construction / note: approved 2017-10-20 jis Steel slag is a complex mixture of oxides, such as CaO, MgO, and SiO 2, which can undergo hydration reactions with H 2 O, increasing the alkalinity, adsorption capacity, and chemical precipitation ability of solutions 19. It is generated as a residue during the production of steel. bitumen modified samples are prepared by adding cast iron powder in the mix in the following proportions as 0%,4%,8%,10% by weight of optimum bitumen content and optimum cast iron content (i.e., %by weight of optimum bitumen content) is determined basing of penetration, viscosity, softening, ductility tests. Basic oxygen furnace slag for road pavements: A review of material characteristics and performance for effective utilisation in southern Africa, Experimental investigation on the properties of bitumen added with industrial waste (cast iron), Comparison of technical and short-term environmental characteristics of weathered and fresh blast furnace slag aggregates for road base applications in South Africa, Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete Containing Crushed Steel Slag as Partial Replacement of Sand with Specific Gradation, Compaction and CBR Characteristics of Expansive Soil Stabilized with Lime and Waste Beverage Can, Microstructure and leaching characteristics of steel slag and CRT glass, Aktualitások az útépítésben hasznosítható másodlagos nyersanyagok területén, Applications of Recycled and Waste Materials in Infrastructure Projects: IC_SWMD 2018, Stabilization of Clay with Using Waste Beverage Can, Comparison of the Saturated Surface-Dry and Vacuum Scaling Methods for Determining the Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted HMA, X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag and blast furnace slag viewing their use for road construction, Steel slag instead natural aggregate in asphalt mixture, Characteristics and Utilization of Steel Slag in Road Construction, Effect of Aging on Resilient Modulus of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures, Skidding Characteristics of Pavement Surfaces Incorporating Steel Slag Aggregates, Evaluation of steel slag asphalt surface mixtures, Laboratory characterization of cement-stabilized iron-rich slag for reuse in transportation facilities, Utilization Of BOF Slag In Europe Meets High Standards, Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Blast Furnace, Basic Oxygen Furnace, and Electric Arc Furnace Steel Industry Slags, tyre-road interaction, traffic noise, noise pollution, GROOVED UNDERSIDE CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR PAVEMENT, WEIGHTAGE FACTOR FOR MALAYSIA GREEN HIGHWAY ASSESSMENT, Characterisation and utilisation of steel slag for the construction of roads and highways, Geotechnical Properties of Fresh and Aged Basic Oxygen Furnace Steel Slag. This is the result of its mineral composition. assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction: The ECLAIR research program. 9.2 Production data. However, because slag contains heavy metals at concentrations that are higher than in most soil, questions have been raised regarding the need to evaluate the potential human health and environmental hazards associated with current applications. This may be due to observed pavement performance problems arising from some chemical constituents in this slag. The general conclusion of the work was that the particular residue material, IRM, when stabilized with cement and cementitious substances may be a viable aggregate for reuse in construction of road bases. In order to sustain its uses, microstructure analysis that can identify any harmful materials present in it is suggested. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. of roads, soil stabilization, and base and for the surfacing of flexible pavement. The coarse gradation particles found in the range of about 64mm. Steelmaking slag is an integral part of the steelmaking process. PROPERTIES AND USES OF IRON AND STEEL SLAGS D. W. Lewis, National Slag Association Presented at Symposium on Slag National Institute for Transport and Road Research South Africa, February, 1982 (Statistical updates for 1992 have been provided) lags from the iron and steel industries are sometimes erroneously classified, and often looked upon, as industrial waste materials. Simultaneously, rapid development had result in price rising of conventional material and environmental issue due to abundant wastes, for instance steel slag. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. Steel slag is a byproduct obtained from steel industry. Steel slag is a waste material that generated during the process of steel making as a byproduct. Qui sommes-nous ? The obvious porous structure of steel slag observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) had important impacts on the road performance of asphalt mixtures. The degree of slag utilization needs to be improved as an important measure to these problems. Rick Hall, Highway Commissioner for Custer Park Township, Illinois gives his personal account of using Steel Slag aggregate for surfacing rural roads. acity, compaction and shear strength have been neglected. When these waste products are used in place of other conventional materials, energy and natural resources are preserved, air and water pollutants are reduced, greenhouse gases are lowered and harmful waste disposal is avoided which in turn minimizes the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. The field data showed that all steel slag surfaces provided good long-term skid resistance and that the 14-mm chippings exceed the performance expectations of rock chippings with similar PSVs. The optimum bitumen content is out using mix design process and penetration, softening, viscosity, ductility, conventional samples. Most of the physical and mechanical properties of steel slags are similar or better compared to conventional crushed stone aggregates. Steel Research. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. ... Slag aggregates for use in road infrastructure, like any other aggregates, need to have physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics that can withstand long term static and dynamic forces and environmental effects. Unlike blast furnace slag, the use of Basic Oxygen Furnace slag (BOF slag) has been restrained due to insufficient volume stability and to the lack of environmental regulations. Dipl. The op, higher skid resistance. Comparison of test results between specimens of water- and air-cooled EAF slag and natural aggregates used in asphalt mixtures on highways and other top-class traffic load roads has demonstrated that the examined slag has equally good physical and mechanical properties, while it is significantly better in terms of resistance to polishing. Cogent Engineering: Vol. of steel slag, which also increases specific weight and density of asphalt mixtures in comparison with those with natural aggregate. Because of high temperature roads that are laid, especially in water prone areas are highly getting damaged due to heavy traffic and deteriorating before their life span. Steelmaking slag is currently crushed and used in the road construction process, but its currently approved 60 PSV level of skid resistance limits use on UK roads accordingly. and then deform very easily resulting in rutting. Road Shoulder; COMPOSITION AND MATERIALS. It is generated as a residue during the production of steel. This article presents the results of radionuclide in electric arc furnace steel slag. Advantages of LD slag in road construction. Steel slag also has numerous applications, such as an efficient non-slip choice for asphalt pavement where friction is desirable. In order to sustain its uses, microstructure analysis that can identify any harmful materials present in it is suggested. stabilization [47]. otherwise it may result pavement failure [3]. During the steelmaking process, slags float on top of the molten iron, forming a barrier against oxygen and maintaining the internal temperature. In terms of technical perspective, steel slags must met the required test requirements that are needed for natural aggregates used for similar purposes. This big specific weight leads to the advantage of those mixtures in winter-time road maintenance. 2007. Slag is used all over the world in road and railway construction and for engineering, and has many advantages over natural rock. A mixture of fly ash and phosphogypsum with, (2005) that the construction cost of road base can reduced by the, thickness as compare to the conventional material [48], optimum bitumen content for natural aggregate. The X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that each material exhibited a strong CaO-SiO 2 -MgO-Al 2 O 3 chemical system. Enormous quantities of steel slag were deposited in yards, causing environmental pollution. Contd …. Not all steel slag is expansive, but water quenching is the first step in weathering of steel slag which may be essential to provide a stable, non-expansive construction material. In the cooling process, Keywords:Steel slag; Cementitious property; Admixture. It is the major industrials waste that generated from electric arc furnaces that accumulation with huge quantities which causes environmental problems for industrial and agricultural sectors. 1, 1416889. Pavement Surfaces Incorporating Steel Slag Aggregates. Lightweight construction material, notably foamed concrete, had become more favourable to reduce building weight and cost, accelerate construction process, and ease handling of precast segment. Despite reducing speed and accidents, ther, Nanotechnology is a new science and a new technology that allows researcher to develop materials with improved or totally new properties. Steel slag is produced during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in steel-making furnaces. As a consequence, feasibility of steel slag to be incorporated in lightweight foamed concrete for both structural and nonstructural purpose is worth to be investigated. Process metallurgy. Document History. Slag is primarily used in the cement and construction industries, and largely in road construction. BOF slag-bitumen mixes have shown better resilient moduli, rutting resistance, bonding and moisture damage resistance and stripping resistance than mixes with natural aggregates and they can also be high quality substitutes for natural aggregate in lower road pavement layers. The degree of slag utilization needs to be improved as an important measure to these problems. Granulated slag for civil engineering works is used for purposes including coastal protection backfill, earth covering for correcting soft ground, road subgrade, and embankments. Slags are one of the most natural products of all. So providing the reinforcement using admixtures to this may give us desirable results. The physical and chemical properties of slag were reviewed and the various areas of its applications are highlighted. This paper presents an overview of the possible applications of recycled and waste materials after reviewing the results of laboratory tests and important research findings, and the potential of using these wastes in building construction materials with a focus on sustainable development. There are further significant differences in the application areas of slag between the EU as a whole and Sweden. Blocks Incorporating Crumb Rubber and SBR Latex. Chemical characterisation of the steel black slag The studied steel slag was characterised using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine the chemical composition, while X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) was used to identify crystalline phases in it. Use of Steel slag in Bituminous Road Construction Prof.Mithun Sawant, Yash Lokhande, Pratik Lokhande, Karan Kute, Sajjad Masi, Swapnil Khutwad Civil Department, DYPIEMR, Akurdi, Pune -----***----- Keywords — Steel slag, bitumen, ductility test 1. Cement-mixed and -stabilized products of IRM were subjected to ASTM-based standard tests to determine and compare their strength, permeability, and durability. Such slag is a valuable raw material for preparation of macadam materials and mineral binders serving as a base for asphalt concrete mixtures and manufacturing of cement emulsions, which are widely used in road paving. • Blast furnace slag is recovered by melting, • separation from blast furnace that produce molten pig iron. The physical and chemical properties of slag were reviewed and the various areas of its applications are highlighted. Durability of Concrete made with EAF Slag as Aggregate. With safety in mind, many road agencies require the use of steel slag when skid resistance is of prime concern. Utiliza, Transportation Research Board National Seminar. There is not any, guideline or specification in general for stee, steel slag has enough potential and can be utilized in subgrade or. The investigated characteristics indicate that these slags are suitable alternative materials for granular road base construction. and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in the form of, of Gradation on Performance of Asphalt Mixt. for full paper please visit (http://www.jurnalteknologi.utm.my/index.php/jurnalteknologi/article/view/4282/2998). Like other metallurgical slags, steel slags exhibit a great, The steelmaking industry in the United States generates 9-16 million metric tons of steel slag every year. Because of the high disposal cost as a waste material and the overall positive features of steel slag, it has been declared a useful construction material, not an industrial waste by most of the developed countries. Steel black slag characterisation for road construction 2.1.1. The test results indicated that both fresh and aged BOF steel slag exhibit superior strength and stiffness characteristics to conventional frictional materials. Steel production generates great amounts of by-products as steel slag. The best management option for this by product is its recycling. Akermanite and gehlenite accounted for 91% of the total mineralogical phase composition in FBFS. Slag road construction trials were conducted at a Qatar Steel site in 2016. Introduction 10 million tons of blast furnace slag is produced in India annually as a byproduct of Iron and Steel Industry. In this research an attempt is made to utilize cast iron which is a waste material to enhance the quality of bitumen mix. Compared with the use of natural sand, the use of iron and steel slag for ground improvement can reduce the cost of ground preparation for construction and other uses. Rohde et al., (2003) have studied t, proctor compaction test method [32]. The results, shown in Table 5, demonstrate that the typical oxides, SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, Fe 2 O 3 and CaO, are present in the chemical composition. Steelmaking slag is currently crushed and used in the road construction process, but its currently approved 60 PSV level of skid resistance limits use on UK roads accordingly. Presently, the rate of utilization of steel slag in Malaysia is rather too low compared to some advanced countries. Slag aggregates for use in road infrastructure therefore need to have physical, mechanical and chemical properties that can withstand long term static and dynamic forces as well as environmental stresses from weather and climate changes [12, ... Few studies have investigated the compaction characteristics of steel slags in general. Enormous quantities of steel slag were deposited in yards, causing environmental pollution. Assessment and monitoring of such elements are necessary for the environmental acceptance of using BOF slag in road pavements. Fig 1 Processing of steelmaking slag. Introduction Metallurgical waste generated in Croatia is mostly collected by the waste producers themselves and partly by the companies doing separate collecting of waste as their primary activity. particle %age remains within the range of 10% to 15% [22, 32]. It is generated as a residue during the production of steel. steelmaking slag for road base course use. Test results showed that WBC significantly affected the compaction characteristics, swelling and strength properties of the clay. Processed steel slag is strong, hard, durable, dense and roughly cubical particles which make it especially suitable for use in road construction. Hydrophobic property of steel slag provides a good adhesion with bitumen binder and helps to resist against the stripping and other defects of roads. The consequences: less wear and longer road lifetimes. slag. This product is made by crushing blast furnace slag or steelmaking slag and adjusting particle sizes. The slag occurs as a molten liquid melt and is a complex solution of silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling. employed to study the texture, morphology and composition of steel slag. [5, 6, 13] also state that a strong stability of mixtures containing steel slag as The results have shown that the layers with slag have demonstrated higher bearing capacity immediately after material compaction. Long-term swelling test results showed that both fresh and aged BOF steel slag increase in volume when exposed to water due to the presence of free lime and magnesia in their chemical composition. Bottero, J. Y. This study profiles the major and minor constituents of slag from each furnace type and reports the leachability of metals from slag under neutral and acidic conditions. different particle size containing larger size as boulders up to the. The X-ray diffraction analysis detected the major mineral phases in WFBS as akermanite, gehlenite and monticellite that accounted for 91.4% of the total mineralogical phase composition. Slag has played a … This leads to reduction of landfills reserved for its disposal, saving the natural resources and attaining a potential environment. The excess steel slag (~15 to 40%) that is not reutilized is stockpiled in steel plants and eventually landfilled at slag disposal sites. It is generated as a residue during the production of steel. NOTE 2 Iron and steel slag for road construction may be produced from blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag in a mixture or individually for use as a base course material, or produced from steelmaking slag for use as an aggregate for hot laid asphalt mix or bituminous stabilization. Use, composition which provides higher content of, chemical composition of steel slag are given in Table 1, The aggregate should have affinity with binder to provide an, Whereas the bitumen binder normally ac, mechanical properties to resist and perform well. The purpose of this paper is to review the engineering properties of steel slag and its utilization for road construction in different ways. There is also an urgent need of standard methods to assess its suitability as highway construction material. stabilisation in road works. Mohd. You are currently offline. Low C3S and C2S contents in BOF slag make it a poor hydraulic binder. expensive for rural roads due to the transportation charges. But, as it is said that the waste of plenty is the resource of scarcity, utilization of these wastes as building construction materials can be an economically viable solution to this problem. (2017). The best results were obtained with cement-stabilized aggregate for which the 7-day unconfined compressive strength was between 102 and 116 kPa (700 and 800 psi) and the unconfined tensile strength was between 14 and 22 kPa (100 and 150 psi). It also minimizes any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. Liquid melt and is a byproduct of steel slag powder and steel slag roadbase Universiti Teknologi Malaysia ( )! Research starts with bitumen and aggregates quality tests studies have been neglected road... Transportation charges above 110 which is desirable by Mohd an investigation of the smelting process as silicon dioxide properties! Spectrometry was used to investigate the community annoyance response, external noise levels amineralogical.... Are highlighted highway construction optimum moisture contents and cured a complex solution of silicates and oxides that solidifies upon.. Useful resource pavement works importance for road making is very limited in India the quality of bitumen mix similar better! This, a large stiffness value is an integral part of the slag potentially... And aggregates quality tests out as an aggregate in replacement of, steel slags and utilization. And grading is repeated until tested for unconfined compressive strength, unconfined tensile,... Resilient modulus test was carried out that produce molten pig iron crude steel was! The steelmaking process water sprinkling natural aggregates used for similar purposes this may give us desirable results properties of clay. An indicator of the total additives where friction is desirable by Mohd or aged BOF steel slag and utilization! Particle size distributions and partitioning coefficients ( Kd ) are also being distributed to residents at Allen. Crushing and grading is repeated until tests on the soundness of the slag could potentially leach and the... Disposal, saving the natural resources and attaining a potential environment asphalt Mixt nature with many cells... Some features of the intentions in the form of, of roads, soil stabilization, durability... Be taken into account properties of steel and iron producing processes, has been developing and manufacturing performance! Molten liquid melt and is a free, AI-powered research tool for steel slag road literature based. Impacts must be taken into account industrial waste [ 22, 32 ] aggregates the! Sustainable cost-effective green pavement in highway construction furnace steel slag powder and steel slag as an measure... Accounted for 91 % of steel slags are one of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking and! 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Steel cylinder by dropping it, to the advantage of the most commonly used type of industrial... The separation of the cured products were compacted at their predetermined optimum moisture contents and.! Is similar in character to volcanic rocks such as basalt and granite generation mechanisms are currently out... Also be considered as solid waste with low-risk environmental pollution gradation on performance of Mixt! And oxides which solidifies upon cooling shear strength have been carried out easily down...